Conduction heat transfer occurs when the molecules in one part of the substance move faster as they heat up. Then they transfer this heat energy to close by molecules and so on down the line. Some materials conduct heat well, like metals and other materials such as insulations are poor conductors. A good example of a conductor in a wall is your studs, if they are steel they will be very good conductors and form a cold bridge allowing heat energy to escape from your home if not insulated properly. Wooden studs were once considered to be fairly good insulators but as time has gone by and insulation requirements increased wooden rafters are now also considered to be cold bridges as they conduct heat away from the building much more effectively than the insulation layers. One way to minimise conduction heat transfer to use a continuous layer of insulation such as SuperFOIL multi foil insulation that isn’t “bridged” by a conductor.
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